ارزیابی تطبیقی مجازات «حبس» در حقوق کیفری مدرن و فقه امامیه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری فقه و مبانی حقوق اسلامی، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران.

2 دانشیار، گروه الهیات، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران.

3 استادیار، گروه الهیات، دانشکده ادبیات و علوم انسانی، دانشگاه یاسوج، یاسوج، ایران.

چکیده

غفلت از عقلانیت کیفری حاکم بر مجازات‌ها، باعث پذیرش صورت مدرن و امروزی زندان در نظام حقوقی ایران شده است. زندان مدرن با تغییر در سازوکار قدرت بوجود آمده است؛ در دوران مدرن، قدرت شکل انضباطی به خود گرفته است و هدف آن تصرّف در روح و اراده فرد و بهنجار کردن وی برای زندگی اجتماعی است. در همین راستا آنچه در عقلانیت کیفری مدرن اصالت دارد، پیوند شخصیت و ساختار روانشناختی فرد بزهکار و جرم ارتکابی اوست، و زندان مجازات غالب و اصلی می‌شود تا به عنوان تکنولوژی انضباطی، محلی برای تصرّف در شخصیت بزهکار و اصلاح روانشناختی و بهنجارسازی وی باشد؛ زندان مدرن بستری برای تولید انسان است. امّا در دیگر سوی، در عقلانیت کیفری اسلام، قدرت شکل انضباطی ندارد، بلکه قدرت معطوف به سعادت اُخروی و هدف شریعت و قوانین کیفری، استکمال نفس انسانی است. اگرچه در عقلانیت کیفری اسلام نیز اصلاح‌گری مجرم اصالت دارد، امّا این امر تفاوت بنیادینی با بهنجارسازی در گفتمان مدرن دارد. در بهنجارسازی مدرن، بزهکار اُبژه تکنولوژی انضباطی می‌شود اما در رویکرد استکمال نفس، آزادی و اختیار بزهکار در اصلاح خویش اصالت جدی دارد و اصول کیفرزدای قابل‌توجهی برای این مهم فراهم می‌شود؛ اصل با عناصر کیفرزدا است و تنبیه و کیفر جنبه استثنایی خواهد داشت. همین رویکرد در فقه امامیه در خصوص مجازات «حبس» نیز وجود دارد و حبس صرفاً سالب حق آزادی است، بر خلاف «زندان مدرن» که آزادی سلب می‌شود تا در بستر زندان فرد بهنجار تولید شود. لذا حبس فقهی، زندان مدرن نیست. بر این اساس، حقوق کیفری ایران نیازمند «بازخوانی مجدد عقلانیت کیفری حاکم بر مجازات‌ها» است تا رویکرد متناسب با سنت فقهی اسلام را در مجازات حبس اعمال کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Study of the Punishment of "Imprisonment" in Modern Criminal Law and Islamic Law

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohsen Saeedi Abooes'haghi 1
  • Abdollah Bahmanpouri 2
  • Seyyed Mahdi Jokar 3
1 PhD Student in Jurisprudence and Fundamentals of Islamic Law, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
2 Associate Professor, Department of Theology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
3 Assistant Professor, Department of Theology, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Yasouj University, Yasouj, Iran.
چکیده [English]

‌ ∴ Introduction ∴ ‌
The genesis of Iran's encounter with modern legal principles can be traced back to the Constitutional Revolution of the early 20th century [Enghelab-e Mashrooteh], a period that heralded significant legal and political reforms aimed at dismantling the autocratic governance structures of the time. The revolution catalyzed the introduction of Western legal concepts such as law, parliament, and constitution into the Iranian socio-political lexicon, laying the foundation for a new legal order. This order was characterized by the amalgamation of religious decrees with modern legal structures, a process that, while innovative, was not devoid of challenges. The crux of the issue, as identified in the current research, lies in the hasty and uncritical adoption of these new legal concepts without a thorough understanding of their theoretical, philosophical, and historical underpinnings. This oversight has precipitated a crisis of theory and practice within the Iranian legal system, manifesting in conceptual ambiguities and operational inefficiencies. At the heart of this research is the reevaluation of the punishment of imprisonment, a fundamental concept in criminal law, through a comparative lens focusing on modern criminal law and Imamia jurisprudence.
‌ ∴ Research Question ∴ ‌
The research is driven by the imperative to scrutinize the punishment of "imprisonment" within the context of Iran's hybrid legal system, specifically examining how this form of punishment is conceptualized, rationalized, and implemented in modern criminal law vis-à-vis Islamic law. The overarching question guiding this inquiry is: How does the comparative analysis of the punishment of imprisonment in modern criminal law and Islamic law illuminate the theoretical and practical discrepancies in the Iranian criminal law, and what implications do these findings have for the evolution of a more coherent legal framework?
‌ ∴ Research Hypothesis ∴ ‌
The hypothesis underlying this research posits that the theoretical and practical dissonance observed in the application of imprisonment in the Iranian legal system stems from a fundamental misalignment in the criminal rationalities governing modern criminal law and Islamic law. This research suggests that while modern criminal law predominantly views imprisonment through the lens of disciplinary power aimed at the normalization and psychological correction of the criminal for societal reintegration, Islamic law approaches punishment with a focus on the spiritual and moral rehabilitation of the individual, emphasizing the afterlife and the perfection of the human soul. This divergence, it is hypothesized, results in fundamentally different implementations of imprisonment, with the modern approach prioritizing correctional normalization, and the Islamic approach advocating for the preservation of the individual's moral agency and freedom.
‌ ∴ Methodology & Framework, if Applicable ∴ ‌
To explore the delineated research question and hypothesis, the study employs a multifaceted methodological approach that combines doctrinal research with inductive, interpretive, and argumentative analysis. This methodology is predicated on an extensive review of philosophical texts, legal treatises, and jurisprudential discourse from both the modern and Islamic legal traditions. The framework for this comparative study is structured around identifying and analyzing the differences in criminal rationality between modern criminal law and Imamia jurisprudence and how these differences manifest in the conceptualization and practice of imprisonment.
     A critical component of this methodology involves examining the evolution of the modern prison system, particularly its emergence as a mechanism of disciplinary power in the modern era, aimed at seizing the individual’s soul and will for the purpose of societal normalization. This analysis is juxtaposed with the examination of imprisonment within Imamia jurisprudence, where the focus is on penal correction with an emphasis on moral and spiritual rehabilitation, highlighting a significant departure from the modern system's focus on psychological correction and normalization.
     Furthermore, the research methodology includes a critique of the existing theoretical and practical frameworks within which imprisonment is situated in the Iranian legal system, arguing that a neglect of the nuanced differences in criminal rationality has led to the uncritical adoption of modern penal practices that may not align with the philosophical and ethical underpinnings of Imamia jurisprudence. Through this comparative analysis, the study seeks to unearth the theoretical and practical implications of these differences, offering insights into how a more informed and theoretically coherent approach to the punishment of imprisonment could be developed within Iran's legal system.
‌ ∴ Results & Discussion ∴ ‌
The findings of the study illuminate a significant divergence in the conceptualization and application of imprisonment between modern criminal law and Islamic law. Modern criminal law, with its roots in disciplinary power, seeks to reform the criminal by targeting the soul and will, aiming for normalization within society. This approach signifies a qualitative shift from physical to psychological modes of punishment, where the prison becomes a space for the psychological transformation and normalization of individuals. The emphasis is on altering the criminal's personality and psychological structure in relation to their crime, marking a profound intensification of power that penetrates the deepest layers of individual identity.
     Contrastingly, Islamic law offers a fundamentally different perspective, viewing punishment as a means to achieve the perfection of the human soul and maintain civil order, grounded in the attainment of afterlife happiness. This system prioritizes the individual's freedom and moral agency in accepting Islamic law and self-correction. Punishments, including imprisonment, are framed as corrective measures that deprive the individual of certain freedoms only to the extent necessary for societal protection and personal purification from sin. The emphasis is on voluntary correction and spiritual discipline, with non-penal institutions like repentance playing a significant role in the penal rationality.
     The discussion of these findings highlights the theoretical and practical challenges posed by the